Saturday, March 14, 2020
Chapter 5 Essays Chapter 5 Paper Chapter 5 Paper What is mechanical weathering? When physical forces break rock into smaller pieces without changing the rocks mineral composition What is frost wedging? The mechanical breakup of rock caused by the expansion of freezing water in cracks and cervices. Which of the following is NOT associated with mechanical weathering? reactions with oxygen What is chemical weathering? The transformation of rock into one or more new compounds Which of the following is the result of chemical weathering? A rock that has been changed into one of more new compounds The atmospheric gas that forms a mild acid when dissolved in water is ________. carbon dioxide What would cause the inscription on a marble gravestone to become harder and harder to read over time? chemical weathering What climate does chemical weather favor the most? Climates with high temperatures and abundant moisture What are the major components of soil? mineral matter, organic matter, water, air A soils texture is determined by ________. Categories of clay, silt, and sand in the soil The main source of organic matter in soil is ________. plants Use figure 5-1 to determine what a soil is called if it has 20% clay, 60% silt, and 20% sand. Silty loam What are the proportions of clay, silt, and sand shown at point B in Figure 5-1? 20% clay 40% silt 40% sand What are the proportions of clay, silt, and sand shown at point A in Figure 5-1? 60% clay 20% silt 20% sand What are the proportions of clay, silt, and sand shown at point C in Figure 5-1? 10% clay 20% silt 70% sand A soil associated with the hot and wet tropics is _________. laterite Pedalfer soils contain high amounts of _______. iron oxide and aluminum-rich clays The process responsible for moving material down-slope under the influence of gravity is called _________. mass movement What is the force behind mass movement? Gravity A mass movement that involves the sudden movement of a block of material along a flat, inclined surface is called a _______. Rockslides or slide Which of these factors affects the rate of weathering? Climate, chemical composition of the exposed rock, and surface area of the exposed rock Why can the removal of vegetation trigger mass movement? The plant root bind the soil and regolith together In the process of __________, water freezes and expands, enlarging cracks in rocks. frost wedging A large pile of debris that forms at the base of a slope is called _______. talus What is the most important agent of chemical weathering? water What is regolith? The layer of rock and mineral fragments that nearly everywhere covers the Earths surface The force that drives mass movement is _____. gravity What is the content in the soil type Pedocal? Abundant calcite or calcium-carbonate What is the location and content of the soil Chapter 5 Essays Chapter 5 Paper Chapter 5 Paper experience-expectant the brain expects the world will present particular, species universal experiences- patterns of light and dark, various kinds of tastes and odors, language, and the like- and develops in response to those experiences experience-dependent development occurs in response to specific experiences prefrontal area part of the cortex that is located directly behind the forehead and is important to the development of voluntary behaviors locomotion the ability to move around on ones own social referencing infants tendency to look to their caregiver for an indication of how to feel and act in unfamiliar circumstances sensorimotor intelligence part of Piagets theory that says young infants understand the world only through their own actions and perceptions; they therefore cannot think about things or people that are not immediately present, seen, heard, felt or acted upon; this changes at 18 months representational thinking at 18 months of age, infants can form mental pictures or images of the world; conceptual world now rather than sensorimotor primary circular reactions repetition of actions that are pleasurable in themselves secondary circular reactions the behavioral characteristic of the third substage of Piagets sensorimotor stage, in which babies repeat actions to produce interesting changes in their environment intentionality the ability to engage in behaviors directed toward achieving a goal object permanence the understanding that objects have substance, maintain their identity when their location is changed, and ordinarily continue to exist when out of sight (starts around 8 months) tertiary circular reactions the 5th stage of the sensorimotor period, characterized by the deliberate variation of action sequences to solve problems and explore the world representations internal, mental symbols of experience; according to Piaget, the ability to form mental symbols emerges during sensorimotor substage A-not-B-error A pattern of reacting in the object permanence task, in which infant looks for the hidden object in location A, where the infant had previously found the object, instead of location B, where the infant has just observed it being hidden violation of expectations method a test of mental representation in which the child is habituated to an event and then presented with possible and impossible variants of the events dynamic systems approach opposes Piagets theory; says that it is infants growing abilities to better coordinate all the various systems involved in both sensorimotor and conceptual intelligence required by the task at hand implicit memory recognition of what you have experienced before explicit memory recall of absent objects and events without any clear reminder Related Papers First few months of life infant attachment Chapter Outline Chapter 2 John Bowlby Hdf 211 Baby Talk Chapter 3 Summary, Ways of Seeing Using chapter 41 Ch 7 Holt Physics William Blake Poem How to cite this page Choose cite format: Chapter 5. 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Get custom paper sample written according to your requirements urgent 3h delivery guaranteed Order now Chapter 5 Paper Essay Topic: Poetry Education and literacy became more widespread during the renaissance in part due to the invention of the printing press True The term Renaissance man is used in case someone who is well educated in many areas True The music of the Renaissance changed very little from the late Middle Ages False The renaissance attitude of humanism require people to get all worldly goods and think solely about their life after death False Early Renaissance musical development was centered in Italy False Early renaissance sacred music was still frequently based on Gregorian chant True Franco Flemish composers made frequent use of imitation in their sacred works True Giovanni pierluigi da palestrina is credited with returning church music to the simplicity and purity of earlier times True The Council of Trent believe that sacred music had been corrupted by complex Polyphony True The 16th century was, to some degree at least, a period of body earthiness, irreverent humor, and celebration of sensual love True Renaissance magic world were always homophonic and strophic False English modules are distinct from Italian and growth in part due to their tendency to use fa Lala refrains True William Byrd was one of the first English composers to write in the magical genre True This singing a madrigals after dinner was a popular pastime in renaissance England True Chorales and Germany were the equivalent of the French chanson and an Italian magical False The only instrumental music written in the Renaissance was dance music False The most popular instrument of the renaissance was viol False Music for brass and read instruments was popular for outdoor dancing True This composer was one of the most influential at the Renaissance era and his name was so well known in his time the other composers put his name on their works in the hopes of selling them A. John farmer B. Josquin des prez C. Claudio Monteverdi D. Giovanni pierluigi da palestrina Josquin des prez The religious leader who broke away from the Catholic Church over disagreement with his doctor and was A. John farmer B. Martin Luther C. Claudio Monteverdi D. Giovanni Pierluigi da palestrina Martin Luther Increased respect for the individual in for independent thought prevalent during the renaissance is called A. The counter Reformation B. Protestantism C. Humanism D. The Council of Trent Humanism The tern a cappella refers to A. Music song without accompaniment B. Music that uses chant as the compositional basis C. Music with Lute accompaniment D. Music performed during the Catholic mass Music song without accompaniment The renaissance motet includes all the following features except A. Polyphony B. imitation C. A single text in Latin D. Multiple text in multiple languages Multiple text in multiple languages The reaction by the Catholic Church to spread a Protestantism was A. Humanism B. the counter Reformation C. the lied D. A move back to living solely for the glory of God The counter Reformation The Council of Trent A. Forced musicians to compose monophonic chant again B. Forbade the use of polyphony C. Abolished all text from sacred music D. Investigated every aspect of religious discipline including church music Investigated every aspect of religious discipline including church music One of the changes protestant churches made concerning music was A. Dissing in the vernacular B. To sing solely in Latin C. Too abolish all singing by the congregation D. To allow only the singing of chance To sing in the vernacular The composer credited with writing a mass that was so beautiful and simple that it supposedly convinced the Council of Trent to reconsider abolishing polyphony was A. Giovanni pierluigi da palestrina B. Josquin des Prez C. Claudio Monteverdi D. Michael praetorius Giovanni pierluigi da palestrina Italian Renaissance secular music genre it was sentimental or erotic poetry was the A. Chancon B. Chorale C. Madrigal D. Fantasia Madrigal Music was written to represent the literal meaning of the text uses a technique called A. Transcription B. Word painting C. Embellishment D. Imitation Word painting Which composer did not write madrigals A. John dowland B. Claudio Monteverdi C. Carlo Gesualdo D. Luca marenzio John dowland The simplified version of the magical That was used in England is called the A. Chanson B. Ballet C. Motet D. Lute song Ballet A type of French secular song they used accented rhythms and repetition was the A. Chanson B. Lied C. Chorale D. Fantasia Chanson Renaissance German secular song was called the A. Chorale B. Fantasia C. Ballet D. Lied Lied Arrangement of compositions for medium other than those for which they were originally written or called; when for voice accompanied by a lute was called A. Chansons B. Embellishments C. Lute songs D. Transcriptions Transcriptions Original compositions frequently written for the lute were called A. Chorales B. Transcriptions C. Fantasias D. Madrigals Fantasias Which of the following was not a popular keyboard instrument A. Piano B. Clavichord C. Harpsichord D. Organ Piano To embellish music means to A. Continually repeat the sections in the same manner B. Perform the music as a round C. Change the words of a song D. Add or change notes in the Melody Add or change notes in the Melody Flow my tears John dowland Fair phyllis John farmer Ave Maria Josquin des prez Pope Marcellus mass: kyrie Giovanni pierluigi da palestrina A broken consort was made up of A. Instruments from the same family B. Viols only C. Instruments from mixture of families D. Brass only Instruments from a mixture of families Josquin des prez Franco Flemish composer Michael praetorius Late renaissance German composer of dances Claudio Monteverdi Late Renaissance madrigal composer Giovanni pierluigi da palestrina Late renaissance Italian composer who worked at St. Peters Lied German secular song Chanson French secular song Madrigal Italian secular song
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
The Evolution Of Primate Locomotion And Body Configuration - Essay Example In 1956, while searching through a collection of fossils at the American Museum of Natural History, I came across a small piece of forehead bone, identified as a "possible primate," that had lain neglected for half a century. It had been recovered from the Fayum badlands, sixty miles southwest of Cairo, Egypt, by an amateur collector named Richard Markgraf. The rock in which it was found was known to belong to the geological epoch we call the Oligocene (now estimated to have lasted from 34 to 23 million years ago). Although only the size of a quarter, the fossil displayed two defining characteristics of the Anthropoidea, or higher primates--the large evolutionary group that includes monkeys, apes, and humans. I could tell that the right and left frontal (forehead) bones in this small animal were fused along the midline suture into a single bone, as is the case in all the higher primates. And on the right side, just enough of the rim of the eye socket was preserved for me to establish that it was fully enclosed in the back by bony plates (the eyeballs of more primitive primates are normally encircled by just a thin bar of bone). Neither feature had been previously documented in so old a fossil. Better late than never, the small piece of bone joined a short list of other fossils discovered in the Fayum between 1906 and 1910 that also appeared to belong to higher primates. The best of the other fossils--both nearly complete mandibles--belonged to two small species named Parapithecus fraasi and Propliopithecus haeckeli. Both have lower molars with anthropoidean features--in particular, they are broad and flat and have five cusps. (Miyamoto 197-220) In addition, Propliopithecus has the same number of the different types of teeth as other Old World anthropoideans, and the two sides of the lower jaw are solidly fused together in the front, another important characteristic of higher primates. My interest sparked by these tantalizing finds, I began doing fieldwork in the Fayum more than thirty years ago. Since then, my teams and I have succeeded in gathering hundreds of additional primate fossils, documenting the presence of eleven primate species in Oligocene deposits that are 30 to 33 million years old. The largest of these species, a close relative of Propliopithecus, is Aegyptopithecus zeuxis, a cat-size creature that appears to stand at or near the base of the family tree of the Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. We have collected several skulls and faces of Aegyptopithecus, as well as many bones from the rest of its skeleton (see "Dawn Ape of the Fayum," Natural History, May 1984). Many of the eleven Oligocene species have anthropoidean features, including the fused frontal bone, enclosed eye socket, lower jaws that are solidly fused together in the front, and the broadened and flattened lower molars with five principal cusps. In certain details, the upper molars also resemble those of more recent higher primates. Another anthropoidean characteristic is the manner in which the bony ring encircling the eardrum lines the auditory opening at the side of the skull. The eleven species are diverse in many respects, however. By 1985, I had accumulated enough evidence to say that they fell into several different taxonomic families or subfamilies. Given that so much diversity had evolved, I had to conclude that the common ancestor of all the higher primates must go back a long way in Africa. This was only the beginning, however, for in 1983 a Fayum site called Locality 41 had been discovered. Its exposed deposits came from a much deeper layer than those of
Monday, February 10, 2020
Self care theory - Essay Example One of the nursing theorists who drew from the systems theory to develop a more operational theory is Betty Neuman. Applicability of Neuman's Systems Theory Betty NeumanÃ¢â¬â¢s model, the Ã¢â¬ËNeuman SystemÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, seeks to portray the constant interaction between a patient and his or her environment, and how it contributes to balance and a sense of well-being from the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective (Hinton & Neuman, 1995). In the Neuman SystemÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, a patient is viewed as being in constant contact with different factors such as the larger community, the environment, and the family. These factors affect the patient developmentally, spiritually, psychosocially, and physiologically in positive or negative ways. NeumanÃ¢â¬â¢s systemÃ¢â¬â¢s theory holds that it is how an individual reacts to such factors that determine his or her environment. For example, if a person is irritated when a family member that he disagreed with earlier comes to ask him for something, the person has generated the feeling of irritation in response to the request of the family member. The personÃ¢â¬â¢s irritation will give birth to other symptoms such as anxiety and a feeling of stress which will in turn affect his blood pressure and possibly sleep disturbances. If his anxiety persists over a long period of time, the personÃ¢â¬â¢s self-concept may even be subjected to changes even as his physical health further deteriorates. In this case, the personÃ¢â¬â¢s powerlessness in adapting to the new environment results in the breakdown of his protective barriers. The Neuman Systems model also addresses the factor of perceived barriers that an individual can adopt so as to be able to cope with a transformation in the immediate environment. Neuman's Systems Theory in use in Culturally Diverse Families In the Neuman SystemÃ¢â¬â¢s model, it is believed that the nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s function is to view the patient as being a distinct individual with his own aspirations and coping abilities. While executing primary, as well as secondary interventions, the nurse is always conscious of the need to view the patient in a holistic manner that respects their protective barriers in order to enable the client to return to a state of well being (Fawcett, 2005). Due to the fact that the environment around the patient does not remain constant, the nurse always has to constantly re-consider the best ways to meet the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. This would be the case particularly in culturally diverse families where people may have different opinions and thus create new environments for the patient constantly. Neuman regarded people as being open systems which work with other elements when interacting with their environment. Neuman's model allows for nurses to be able to evaluate and care for the entire family unit as a singular client. Even though Neuman tended to concentrate o the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s health, she felt that a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s health was basically dependent on the way in which they were presently reacting to the factors in their environment. The nurse who seeks to use the Neuman model has to analyze his professional role in the primary as well as secondary stages of prevention (Hinton & Neuman, 1995). By using this method, the nursing function is then transformed into one whereby the nurse chooses various effective interventions to treat the patient. In any culturally divers
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Hotel and Information Systems Essay It has been accepted for inclusion in Communications of the Association for Information Systems by an authorized administrator of AIS Electronic Library (AISeL). For more information, please contact [emailprotected] org. 102 Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 15, 2005) 102-118 OUTRIGGER HOTELS AND RESORTS: A CASE STUDY Gabriele Piccoli School of Hotel Administration Cornell University [emailprotected] edu ABSTRACT This case describes the history, strategy, and current information systems infrastructure of a midsize, privately owned hospitality firm. The case is designed to provide the substantial background information needed to engage successfully in setting direction for IS resources and their use at Outrigger Hotels and Resorts headquartered in Hawaii. It enables students to analyze the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy thoroughly and to assess its current use of information systems resources. With this assessment as a starting point, students can develop an appropriate IS vision, IS architecture, and a strategic IS plan for Outrigger Hotels and Resorts. The case was originally designed to use the process of setting direction for IS resources as described by Martin and colleagues , but is flexible enough to adapt to the structure of other approaches to planning for information systems use. Keywords: IS planning, IS assessment, IS visioning, infrastructure, hospitality. EditorÃ¢â¬â¢s Note: A teaching note is available from the author to faculty so requiring it that are listed in the MISRC-ISWorld Faculty Directory. I am involved with every decision that senior management takes. They look to me for an IS slant to it Ã¢â¬â whether an IT solution can capitalize on opportunities or eliminate threats. They also expect my team to independently develop an IS strategy that will further the business. Joe Durocher, Senior Vice President CIO Every manager must have an IT strategy. You canÃ¢â¬â¢t delegate to technologists and only worry about your allocated cost or what training your employees need. You must understand how to be master of your own destiny and make IT work best for you. Too many managers still donÃ¢â¬â¢t get that. Rob Solomon, Senior Vice President Sales Marketing Outrigger Hotel and Resorts: A Case Study by G. Piccoli Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 15, 2005)102-118 103 I. INTRODUCTION Outrigger Hotels and Resorts, a mid-size lodging firm focused on leisure travel to the Hawaiian Islands and the South Pacific, uses Information Technology (IT) in numerous aspects of its operations and therefore must carefully engage in the information systems planning process. After analyzing OutriggerÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy and assessing the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s current use of information systems resources, we can develop an appropriate IS vision, IS architecture, and a strategic IS plan for Outrigger Hotels and Resorts. On Black Friday, September 13, 1929, Roy C. Kelley arrived in Hawaii with his wife Estelle. An architect by training, Mr. Kelley joined the firm of C. W. Dickey and was responsible for designing many of Honolulus landmark buildings, including the main building of the old Halekulani Hotel and the Waikiki Theater on Kalakaua Avenue. Nine years later Kelley set out on his own, building numerous homes, apartment buildings, and hotels on the island of Oahu. In 1963, Kelley took over the land occupied by the old Outrigger Canoe Club. Outrigger Hotels then became a reality with the mission of bringing the dream of a vacation in Paradise within the reach of the middle-class traveler. Included in the agreement were leases on three Waikiki lots that later became the Outrigger East, Outrigger West, and Coral Reef hotels. The Outrigger Waikiki Hotel was built on the site of the old canoe club, arguably the prime spot on Waikiki beach, in 1967. Throughout the next two decades, Outrigger Hotels Hawaii, as the company was named, continued its expansion in Waikiki. When in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s the zoning authority put a cap on new construction in Waikiki, Outrigger began to expand through acquisition rather than construction, ultimately becoming the largest chain in the State of Hawaii, with over 7,000 rooms and a total of 15 properties concentrated in Waikiki. Thanks to its clustered configuration, with all of its hotels located within one square mile, Outrigger was able to maintain a centralized management structure fitting Mr. KelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëmanagement by walking aroundÃ¢â¬â¢ style. In 1989, Outrigger Hotels Hawaii, now under the leadership of Roy KelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s son Dr. Richard Kelley, took over management of The Royal Waikoloan Hotel on the Big Island of Hawaii. When hurricane Iniki, heading for Waikiki in 1992, barely missed Honolulu and ravaged the island of Kauai, it provided further impetus for OutriggerÃ¢â¬â¢s geographical diversification strategy to and beyond neighboring islands. The firm, expanding into management agreements with third party owners, added properties on Maui and Kauai and ultimately grew to a total of 26 locations in the Hawaiian Islands. In 1996 the firm made its first international foray, opening the Outrigger Marshall Island Resort on Majuro Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Through partnerships, joint ventures, acquisitions, and new developments the firm continued to grow internationally, adding properties in Guam, Fiji, Tahiti, Australia, and New Zealand. While growing geographically, in 1990 Outrigger Hotels Hawaii began to diversify its product portfolio by adding condominium resorts. Because of ts geographical and product diversification, in 1995 Outrigger Hotels Hawaii changed its name to Outrigger Hotels and Resorts, and in 1999 re-branded fifteen of its hotels in Waikiki to launch a new hotel brand called OHANA Hotels of Hawaii. We had an identity crisis because the market moved up, we upgraded the onbeach properties where we had higher demand and bought some nice properties in neighboring islands. But we had huge variation in the portfolioÃ¢â¬âif you stayed at a budget property vs. a beach front property, youÃ¢â¬â¢d be very confused as to what an Outrigger was. President and CEO, David Carey Outrigger Hotel and Resorts: A Case Study by G. Piccoli 104 Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 15, 2005) 102-118 Figure 1: Outrigger Properties in Waikiki Figure 2: Outrigger Properties in the Hawaiian Islands Outrigger Hotel and Resorts: A Case Study by G. Piccoli Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 15, 2005)102-118 105 Figure 3. Properties Managed by Outrigger Hotels and Resorts (International) The on-beach properties became upscale full-service hotels under the Outrigger brand. The condos, also typically on-beach upscale locations, maintained the Outrigger brand. Conversely, the OHANA brand was positioned to cater to the budget traveler looking for value on off-beach properties. Condominiums represented an increasingly important share of the total portfolio of properties, even though the firm stumbled upon the opportunity that condominiums offered. Condominiums appealed to independent travelers who would do much research and planning on their own. Condominiums were also complex, non-standard products that travel agents and wholesalers found hard to sell. Because condos were rarely built as business ventures, but rather were designed as primary or vacation homes for the tenants, they offered little office or staging space for management companies to operate in. They also lacked many of the typical hotel services and departments such as food and beverage, room service, laundry, and daily maid service. These difficulties notwithstanding, Outrigger found the condo business appealing because it provided a means for expansion through management contracts without the need to acquire expensive properties. By 2005, Outrigger was a sizable firm, with about 3,600 employees (of whom about 230 were at corporate headquarters), a portfolio of properties exceeding US $1. 4 billion, and approximate revenues of US $45 million [Hotel On-Line, 2003]. But at the heart of its strategic positioning a commitment remained to providing a Ã¢â¬Ësense of place,Ã¢â¬â¢ an experience attuned to the culture and the characteristics of the destination, and to avoiding a cookie cutter approach. Our business is really about being a Ã¢â¬Å"windowÃ¢â¬ to an experience, not the experience itself. We are the enabler through which people can engage in the leisure experience they desire. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t try to export Hawaii when we go elsewhere, but we do honor the same values in the places we operate hotels and resorts. David Carey Outrigger Hotel and Resorts: A Case Study by G. Piccoli 106 Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 15, 2005) 102-118 OutriggerÃ¢â¬â¢s senior management believed that its key competencies resided in providing hospitality to guests visiting their properties and marketing those properties successfully through leisure distribution channels. To complement these basic competencies, OutriggerÃ¢â¬â¢s management developed what it believed to be a superior capability to manage in a multicultural environment, including multicultural and multilingual employees and guests. Aided by a turnover rate in the single digits and an average of 25 years of employee tenure with the company, Outrigger managed to be a mostly non-union shop in the heavily unionized Hawaii labor market. We operate properties that have good locations, we have a strong travel distribution network, and our employees really provide hospitality from the heart. That creates a differentiated product making price less important. David Carey Outrigger was wedded to the success of its destination markets and to the well-being of airlines serving its destinations. If Hawaii does well, so do we. I spend a lot of time working with local tourism authorities to improve the appeal of the destinations we operate in. But airlines can be a bottleneck. We may not have available lift at times when we need it. If the airlines are full or they have decided in their yield model that they are going to only sell their top fares, there is nothing we can do. From purely the hotelsÃ¢â¬â¢ perspective, the best thing for us is an airline price war to Hawaii. David Carey III. THE HOTELS AND RESORTS INDUSTRY As the 21st century dawned, the global lodging industry was estimated to exceed $295 billion in sales (about 11% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s economic output) and employed more than 250 million workers [Encyclopedia of Global Industries, 2003]. The leisure travel segment accounted for about 45% of total volume [Horwath International, 2002]. THE HAWAIIAN HOTEL MARKET In the Hawaiian market, which was OutriggerÃ¢â¬â¢s traditional stronghold, 2004 data showed performance levels above the average of the global industry. Being quite isolated from any large population pool, Hawaii was a classic destination market with an exclusive fly-in customer base. The major feeders were U. S. westbound traffic and Japanese eastbound traffic. These markets were thought to yield very high return rates1Ã¢â¬âestimated by some to be around 50% westbound and over 65% eastbound. This trend made for a very location-savvy customer base. Peculiar to this market was also the trend of multi-island stays, with guests visiting more than one destination during the same trip. Table 1. Performance of Hawaii Hotel Market Occupancy Avg. Number of rooms Average Daily Rate2 Revenue* * Amounts per available room 72. 1% 706 $198. 41 $78,488 In the hotel business, return rate is used to refer to the percentage of visitors who come back again for more than one visit to the same location. 2 Average Daily Rate (ADR), is the average of all rates charged on a given date for all rooms sold that day. A yearly ADR can be computed by averaging ADRs for all days of the year. 1 Outrigger Hotel and Resorts: A Case Study by G. Piccoli Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 15, 2005)102-118 107 PRICING Because the Hawaii and Pacific Rim markets were exclusive destination markets, the use of packages Ã¢â¬â including air and accommodations Ã¢â¬â was pervasive. Historically, packages were assembled and sold by wholesalers and tour operators who purchased both air and hotel rooms in bulk and re-marketed them to the traveling public. With the widespread adoption of the Internet, a new type of package was emerging under the leadership of large online travel agencies: dynamic packages. A dynamic package was one that enabled the guest to choose air, hotel, car rental, and even activities, ticket them independently, and then price them out as a bundle. Dynamic packages were appealing to suppliers because the price of each item was not disclosed, making price comparison difficult and alleviating commoditization fears. They were appealing to prospective travelers because they increased choice and fostered flexibility. Finally, they appealed to online travel agents because they built upon their value propositionÃ¢â¬âcustomer choiceÃ¢â¬âand could potentially improve their margins. COMPETITORS As a mature destination, Hawaii had been entered by many of the larger branded hospitality and resort companies. The largest hospitality firms, such as Marriott International, Hilton Hotels and Resorts, and Starwood, developed a significant presence with eight, five, and eleven properties respectively. But the largest operators in Hawaii were geographically- and leisure-focused players such as Outrigger, ASTON Hotels ; Resorts Hawaii (with twenty-eight properties), and Marc Resorts Hawaii (with eleven properties). IV. OUTRIGGER CUSTOMERS AND THE COMPETITION THE OUTRIGGER HOTELS AND RESORTS CUSTOMERS OutriggerÃ¢â¬â¢s original mission was to bring the opportunity for a vacation in Paradise within the reach of middle-class families. As the firm began to diversify its portfolio, the profile of its customers and the competition also changed. The typical guest staying with the premium brand Ã¢â¬â Outrigger Ã¢â¬â was often a multigenerational customer with a sense of loyalty to the brand (about 25% of guests were returning to Outrigger) and an annual income exceeding $75,000. Outrigger guests were almost exclusively leisure travelers. This customer base created seasonality, with winter and summer being the high seasons when properties like the Outrigger Waikiki on the Beach reached an ADR of $260 and an overall occupancy around 90%. Our customers are independent-minded and look for an experience that is more regional and attuned to the destination, but still within their comfort zone. They may stay with big brands in their road warrior capacity, but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not what they are looking for in a tropical destination. Rob Solomon Table 2. Outriggers Portfolio and Sample Competitors Location Properties Rooms Lowest Rate * Outrigger Hotels and Resorts Waikiki 2 1,383 $160 Starwood Hotels and Resorts Waikiki 4 4,132 $150 Marriott International Waikiki 1 1,297 $209 Hyatt Hotels and Resorts Waikiki 1 1,230 $210 Outrigger Hotels and Resorts Guam Fiji 2 895 $203 Starwood Hotels and Resorts Guam Fiji 3 995 $145 Hilton Hotels and Resorts Guam 1 587 $110 *Rates for comparable rooms as they appear on the company website, December 2004, for January 2005 stays Outrigger Hotel and Resorts: A Case Study by G. Piccoli 108 Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 15, 2005) 102-118 Competing for these customers, Outrigger went head-to-head with major brands that enjoyed name recognition amongst the traveling public, a flow of customers redeeming points, available capital, and availability of programs for employees such as discounted travel beyond Hawaii and the Pacific region. In response, Outrigger leveraged its assets: some of the premier locations in the markets in which it competed, strong name recognition, long-term relationships with the travel distribution network, a strategic focus on vacation destinations, a deep local knowledge and community ties, and good employee relations. THE OHANA HOTELS CUSTOMERS The typical OHANA guest was a value-minded and Hawaii-savvy leisure traveler with income below $100k a year. Typically, OHANA guests had visited Hawaii multiple times, stayed longer than average, and visited more often. Business travel was mainly military personnel and employees of corporations who operated on multiple islands. Groups accounted for less that 10% of OHANAÃ¢â¬â¢s overall traffic. We have about 50% return guests. Your first trip you want a beach front hotel, the atmosphere, the ambianceÃ¢â¬âyou want the full Hawaii experience. When you come more often, you still want the experience, but you look for more value and instead of spending $250-$300 a night for a beachfront you can stay longer offbeach for $70-$80 a night. Chuck Shishido, OHANA Hotels VP of Operations With seasonality similar to that of the full service Outrigger Hotels, OHANA Hotels typically achieved an ADR around $66 and approximate occupancy levels of 75% over the year. A number of small regional chains (such as Marc Resorts and Castle Resorts) and many off-beach independent hotels existed in the Waikiki market. Pricing for off-beach properties was much harder to manage because of the commodity nature of the hotels not enjoying a premium location. OHANA was the largest operator in Waikiki and the largest Hawaii-owned operator. Table 3. OHANAÃ¢â¬â¢s Portfolio and Sample Competitors Location Properties Rooms Lowest Rate * OHANA Waikiki 13 4564 $76 Marc Resorts Waikiki 4 314 $74 Castle Resorts Waikiki 6 N/A $75 * Rates for comparable rooms as they appear on the company website, December 2004, for January stays CONDOMINIUMS CUSTOMERS Two types of customers typically stayed at the condominiums. On the low end of the $90,000 to $160,000 income bracket were families visiting during school breaks, looking to control expenses, and control their vacation experience. They valued the full kitchen Ã¢â¬â a standard in every unit Ã¢â¬â and the two bedrooms and two baths. This assessment was substantiated by the fact that condos had four times as many reservations coming direct from the Internet and tended to recover faster after a soft economy. On the upper end were Ã¢â¬ËnewlywedsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ënearly deadÃ¢â¬â¢ couples who liked the privacy and space afforded by a condo. Because of the need to convince individual owners to join the pool of Outrigger managed units, the firm competed with small local management companies and individual ownersÃ¢â¬â¢ beliefs that they could do a better job alone. This idiosyncrasy of condominium operations amounted to dealing with two customersÃ¢â¬âthe unit owners and the guests. The guests were unaware of the workings of condo operations and looked for the same level of service they would receive at a resort. On average, a condominium with mostly two bedroom units would achieve an ADR around $175, while properties with mostly studio and one bedroom units would go for around $140. Outrigger Hotel and Resorts: A Case Study by G. Piccoli Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 15, 2005)102-118 109 MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION Outrigger operated a Central Reservation Office (CRO) in Denver, Colorado with anywhere from 40 to 70 reservationists (FTEs), mainly depending on the volume of business. A corporate marketing staff of 12 people, allocated about 6% of revenue, was responsible for managing the brand and for going to market. An additional 2% of revenue was used to fund reservation and other distribution costs. Reservations were centralized for all properties in Hawaii; beyond Hawaii reservations were only taken at each property. OutriggerÃ¢â¬â¢s executives believed that distribution was a cornerstone of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success, with about 50% of the business coming from wholesalers. Consumer direct (via voice or the Web), travel agents, government and military, and corporate clients made up the rest. For international properties, the source of business percentage from wholesalers was close to 80% and almost all reservations were faxed to the property. V. OUTRIGGERÃ¢â¬â¢S ORGANIZATION Outrigger Hotels and Resorts was a management company wholly owned by a holding corporation called Outrigger Enterprises. Reflecting its real estate development roots, Outrigger Enterprises also owned a real estate ownership company called Outrigger Properties. Figure 4 shows the Outrigger organization. Figure 4. Organization Chart Outrigger Hotel and Resorts: A Case Study by G. Piccoli 110 Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 15, 2005) 102-118 Outrigger Properties wrote and managed real estate contracts with third party owners and supervised the owned assets (accounting for about a third of all properties in the Outrigger portfolio), as well as the development, acquisition, and sale of properties. Outrigger Hotels and Resorts, the operating arm of Outrigger Enterprises, was responsible for the writing of new management contracts, and for overseeing property renovations and operations of the managed hotels, resorts, and condos. Outrigger Properties generally negotiated a base rent and a 3 percentage of revenue with tenants; revenues from leased space were assigned to the hosting propertyÃ¢â¬â¢s own PL. Room revenue made up the bulk of each propertyÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue. Income from leased space ranged from as low as 5% in hotels with little retail space to as high as 20% in some of the most appealing locations. Other more marginal revenue was derived from parking, in-room entertainment, telecommunications, and kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ clubs operations. Outrigger Hotels and Resorts historically maintained a highly centralized organizational structure. As the firm grew in size and geographical distribution a more distributed structure emerged, but, reflecting its roots, Outrigger Hotels and Resorts remained consolidated where possible. We have centralized services Ã¢â¬â accounting, IT, finance, engineering, purchasing, special projects Ã¢â¬â that support all the properties on Oahu, as well as indirectly the neighboring islands. There is also one executive housekeeper in charge of all properties. We run the OHANA Hotels like a 4,200 room distributed hotel. It is very efficient. Chuck Shishido As the firm expanded internationally it became more decentralized, with resorts in the Pacific Rim working much more like independent operations and organized like traditional resorts. Recognizing the significant advantages offered by its centralized structure, Outrigger was looking at the possibility of integrating its international resorts better. However, distance presented new challenges: We need a reservation solution for Australia, a real-time coordination with a central reservation service. They are operated as individual hotels; the central 800 number today is just switched to the correct hotel. A centralized system would offer tremendous value because we get drive-in business and substantial potential cross-property traffic. Executive VP and COO Perry Sorenseon, VI. OUTRIGGER IT INFRASTRUCTURE Joe Durocher, the CIO of Outrigger Enterprises, was hired by David Carey in 1986. Mr. Roy Kelly was a hands-on manager. He once told me he hated two things: computers and vice presidents. As the VP of IT, I had two strikes against me. Yet, in 1986 I was brought in to overhaul OutriggerÃ¢â¬â¢s IT infrastructure and we built StellexÃ¢â¬âour integrated CRS/PMS. At the time all our properties were in Waikiki, within one square mile of each other. Joe Durocher In this type of agreement the landlord receives a fixed payment plus a percentage of the total sales made by the tenant business (e. g. , restaurant, shop). 4 The CRS, Central Reservation System, is the computer system used by a hotel chain to support call center operations and, generally, its web site. The CRS holds chain-wide inventory and allows reservationists to sell room inventory at all the hotels affiliated with the chain. The PMS, Property Management System, is the Ã¢â¬Å"brainÃ¢â¬ of hotel operations. It is the computer system that is used to manage the inventory of hotel rooms at an individual property. 3 Outrigger Hotel and Resorts: A Case Study by G. Piccoli Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 15, 2005)102-118 111 Figure 5. Timeline of Major Infrastructure Developments at Outrigger OUTRIGGERÃ¢â¬â¢S SOFTWARE Stellex, to which Durocher refers, was introduced in 1987 as a COBOL application that guaranteed complete redundancy and 24 x 365 uptime. These two properties are particularly important in the hotel business, which depends on being able to make reservations at any time during the day and wants to make sure that its computer system is always operational. For the technically minded, the application ran on a Tandem NonStop platform and a proprietary Enscribe database management system. 5 In 1992, Outrigger introduced its first major update to Stellex, Stellex 2. 0, which ran on a Sun Microsystems UNIX platform and provided revenue management functionality and reservation center support. Because of its unique need for substantial wholesale interaction, Outrigger engaged Opus, a software company specializing on revenue management systems,6 to build their revenue management module for Stellex 2. 0. Outrigger retained control of OpusÃ¢â¬â¢ source code7 and over the years made substantial enhancements, mainly to manage wholesale relationships. Outrigger implemented JD Edwards ERP as the cornerstone of its back-office operations in 1990, years before the ERP craze swept the business world. JD Edwards ran on an IBM AS 400Ã¢â¬âwidely considered to be a mature and stable platform. The firm felt that its centralized IT infrastructure was a source of competitive advantage. Durocher discussed the trade-offs associated with centralized IT: Decentralizing IT would decrease our capabilities while increasing overall costs. But centralized IT creates friction at times. When a hotel is sold for example, the IT allocation may increase for other properties. 8 Joe Durocher Stellex provided the anchor to which all other operational systems connected, including telephone switches, call accounting, and in-room entertainment. All of the properties in the Hawaiian Islands had access to OutriggerÃ¢â¬â¢s centralized IT systems, served from the Honolulu-based data center, through the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s proprietary Wide Area Network. Stellex, for example, was accessed using an ASP model by all the properties in the Hawaiian Islands, the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s Denver-based Central Reservation Office, and the Portland, Oregon-based Web servers, thereby greatly simplifying the achievement of single image inventory, disaster recovery, and overall IT management. This configuration enabled the properties to operate with PCs (as few as 12 in a 5 Tandem Computer Systems was bought up by Compaq in 1997. Compaq, in turn was purchased by HP. Enscribe is still in business in December 2004. 6 Opus was subsequently bought by Micros-Fidelio, the dominant hospitality-focused software company. 7 Ã¢â¬ËSource codeÃ¢â¬â¢ refers to the original, human readable computer program. By owning it, Outrigger could change it as they saw fit. Note that Microsoft, for example, guards its source code jealously so that others canÃ¢â¬â¢t change MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s programs. 8 In many companies, such as Outrigger, IT costs are allocated to users, such as hotels, on an annual basis. IT cost is relatively fixed and not affected much by the number of units it supports. If a property is sold, the fixed cost allocated to all other properties must therefore go up. Outrigger Hotel and Resorts: A Case Study by G. Piccoli 112 Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 15, 2005) 102-118 Figure 6. Outriggers IT Infrastructure typical 500-room property) and networking equipment. The Point of Sales (POS) systems9 were not centralized, since Outrigger leased retail and restaurant space. This state of affairs generated some friction at times: The POS is the computer software used to support retail and restaurant operations. It enables operators to keep track of sales and accurately bill customers. Outrigger Hotel and Resorts: A Case Study by G. Piccoli Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 15, 2005)102-118 113 We offer to interface their POSs to Stellex and pay for interfaces to automate room charges. But many of those POS ar e old and canÃ¢â¬â¢t interface, they must be upgraded first. Restaurants have to write a manual charge voucher and walk it to the front desk for input. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not a popular or efficient way to do it. VP of Property Technology, Allen White Due to the need for local support, the high telecommunication costs to and from Hawaii, and the unacceptable reliability of international networks, Outrigger did not extend this centralized model to its operations in Australia and the Pacific. The properties in Australia and New Zealand, all condominiums, used a highly specialized PMS particularly well suited for their condominium properties and their unique tax code requirements. None of the properties in Hawaii has a server on property. In the outer regions we have standalone PMSÃ¢â¬â¢s and on-property reservations. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t even try to keep Stellex in sync, they just open and close. If a date is getting full, they issue a stop-sell. Reservations that are taken centrally are automatically emailed. Joe Durocher APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT Beyond maintaining and upgrading Stellex, OutriggerÃ¢â¬â¢s IT professionals engaged in minimal application developmentÃ¢â¬âmainly writing customized reports, and configuring and interfacing offthe-shelf applications. The use of outsourcing was limited to the Web site, developed and hosted by a third party in Portland, Oregon. Yet, in order to maintain the integration of direct channels, Stellex served as the booking engine behind OutriggerÃ¢â¬â¢s Web site. A key initiative for Outrigger was the development of electronic interfaces with wholesalers. These interfaces were customdeveloped by the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s IT group using XML. 10 With many wholesalers we have real-time electronic interfacesÃ¢â¬âthey can check availability and we get their reservations instantaneously. Without the interface, if they create a reservation six or three months out, we donÃ¢â¬â¢t see it until reporting time, ten days out, when we receive a fax and manually input it. It is virtually impossible to revenue manage like that. Many big brands have great revenue management systems, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t have real-time wholesaler data. Moreover, we can write wholesale contracts brand-wide. Joe Durocher Outrigger felt that its electronic interfaces afforded it a competitive advantage and preferential treatment from interface-enabled wholesalers, a relationship that proved particularly important during slow periods or a soft economy. Electronic interfaces generated substantial efficiencies, including automatic billing and invoicing without human handling, lowering estimated costs for these functions to $0. 75 from an estimated $10 for manually handled ones. But not all wholesalers were able or interested in automating reservation processing. This lack of interest was particularly true for small operations or those for whom Hawaii and the Pacific represented a small percentage of business. The industry is a mess from a connectivity standpoint. We are fortunate that we have the in-house expertise and the recognition from senior management of how important this is. Even the big companies often donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand the conditions for success. The dirty little secret of the travel industry is that the fax machine still rules. Rob Solomon 10 XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language. It is a language used to create a protocol enabling computer applications of partnering firms to exchange information easily. Outrigger Hotel and Resorts: A Case Study by G. Piccoli 114 Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 15, 2005) 102-118 I spend 30-40 hours a week working with wholesalers on interfaces. There are many legacy systems out there; the fax is state of the art. We have made great progress with the more advance wholesalers or those that upgraded recently. Alan White Outrigger found the Open Travel Alliance (OTA) XML standards, specifying common message format and common content, of great help. But being able to pick the right partner, and avoid costly failures, remained the major challenge. While Outrigger felt it had been successful to date, with an estimated 33% of total reservations received electronically through the various channels, it still handled more than half a million faxes a yearÃ¢â¬âabout eight hundred a day from its largest wholesaler alone before that wholesaler migrated to the electronic interface. The firm felt that it had been able to capitalize on the use of technology to increase distribution efficiencies in the face of ever rising labor costs. Conversion rates at the Central Reservation Office improved from 20% to 45%-50% with widespread consumer adoption of the Internet. The firm estimated that as much as 60% of callers had already researched the Outrigger website and made a purchase decision but, as Solomon put it, Ã¢â¬Å"had one more question. Ã¢â¬ In an effort to provide support right on the website, the firm introduced live chat functionalities and offered email confirmation for significant savings in labor and postage costs. DATA MANAGEMENT In 2001, Outrigger acquired business intelligence software, a data mart, and analytical tools from 11 E. piphany running on a Windows 2000 platform. The data mart held detailed data for three years, enabling analysis down to the individual guest folio. Data were consolidated afterwards, enabling only aggregate analyses. While E. piphany was a recent purchase, Outrigger had been disciplined in collecting data for some time. We had 10 years of high quality data from Stellex; we are very rigid about data capture standardization like room category, naming conventions, request codes, [and] what goes where. For example, postal and country codes are mandatory fields. Our employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ long tenure helps, and peer pressure is a great assetÃ¢â¬â nobody wants to be the one that ruins the value of these reports for all. Alan White The data collected by Stellex, including source of business, stay information, and consumption, were extracted every night by load programs that scrubbed (i. e. , cleaned) them, and transferred them to the JD Edwards ERP system for accounting and to the E. piphany system for analysis. Feeding historical data and forward looking availability and reservation activity, Outrigger learned to harness the analytical power of E. piphany to do forecasts and generate business intelligence both at the source of business and at guest levels. We want the marketing data. It is stupid to have a treasure trove like that and not use it. We mine it. We send thank you letters to recurring guests, we can give you history on who visited, how they got here, what in-flight magazine we should hit. We sold a resort once and they figured they would have to hire 3 people to achieve manually what our reports gave them automatically. They even set their rates based on E. piphany forecasts. Alan White The IT group served as custodian of the data, but any user with security clearance had access to E. piphany data though a web interface; the data was used for marketing and operational analysis (e. g. , analysis of call patterns to evaluate the appeal of Voice over IP solutions). Incorporating the information into daily operations was more challenging. Definitions of technical terms such as Business Intelligence, Data Mart, Data Mining, and many others used throughout this case study can be found free of charge at http://www. whatis. com. 11 Outrigger Hotel and Resorts: A Case Study by G. Piccoli Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 15, 2005)102-118 115 Outrigger found it hard to justify a frequent guest programÃ¢â¬âwith an average repurchase cycle for returning guests of three years, a once a year purchase was considered very high in Hawaii resort operations. Speaking about recognition programs, Individual properties have their own customer database and a strong informal recognition system. We havenÃ¢â¬â¢t been able to justify the investment technologically to do it brand wide. It would be a natural extension of the recognition we give our return guests, but it must be cost-effective. Perry Sorenson If a guest did not tell us he is returning when making the reservation, our current system does not have a database with guest history. Many times we recognize our frequent return guests only at the door, or during check in at the front desk. We have special programs (e. g. , for honeymooners, wedding anniversaries), but we need to know their history to appropriately acknowledge these returning guests. VP of Operations for OutriggerÃ¢â¬â¢s Waikiki Beachfront Hotels Kimberly Agas, a 20 year veteran with the company, IT STAFFING AND ORGANIZATION OutriggerÃ¢â¬â¢s IT staff consisted of 26 full time employees. Of these, 4 data entry operators and 3 developers were housed in a separate limited liability company to help Outrigger take advantage of tax incentives offered by the state of Hawaii.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
I sat in last period history class, my eyes fixed on the clock. Ã¢â¬Å"Twenty more minutesÃ¢â¬ I mumbled to myself, Ã¢â¬Å"twenty more minutes until freedom.Ã¢â¬ I was hardly engaged in the days discussion topic which was the current status of a post 9/11 world. I casually listened to the ideas of my classmates as I chewed my grape flavored bubble gum and doodled on my notebook, blowing bubbles and quietly popping them with my tongue in an attempt to pass the time. My teacher rambled on about how Saddam HeusseinÃ¢â¬â¢s time to disarm is up and how Al Queda must be destroyed. One particular point of view from the boy sitting next to me brought my attention back to the discussion. Ã¢â¬Å"Actually, the U.S. gave Saddam Hussein the chemical weapons he is using, and the CIA helped him find the targets to use them on. It is their own fault he has access to these weapons and President Bush is moron. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to get them back, he just talks big because he is t rying to make a name for himself as an active President.Ã¢â¬ I was shocked by the boldness of the comment but it was nonetheless an interesting perspective. I looked to our teacher to see his response. Our usually very open history teacher was obviously offended. The class was silent for what seemed like an eternity, before he snapped Ã¢â¬Å"Actually you are wrong, and that kind of thinking will not be tolerated in this classroom.Ã¢â¬ My teacher then dismissed my classmate from the discussion. I was shocked that a student was punished for having a valid opinion and for voicing it. I began to wonder if freedom of speech is actually free, or if there is in fact always some consequence for having your own opinions. The recent debate over terrorism and AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to it, has stirred controversy over the rights of free speech. Since the events of September 11, 2001, a large number of people have admitted that they believe the government should have a say over what is being broadcasted and printed The request for government censorship and suppression of free speech following 9/11, is nothing short of an infringement on our Constitution. As Americans, how can we claim be such strong defenders of free speech, and then turn around and put limitations on what we can say regarding the
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Chemical reactions are the basis of life on earth. As human beings, we are little more than the naturally abundant elements of which we are composed and the reactions between the compounds that they form. After all, how could life exist without water? Oxygen transport in a body the size of the human body would be impossible without the aid of a complex like hemoglobin. Besides being the basis of many of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s intangibles, chemistry also plays an active role in our daily lives. Take for instance everyday household cleaning. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re like me, you like to eat off of clean dishes, prepare food on a clean surface, and use clean restroom facilities. Taking the cleaning of any of these areas into your own hands requires a little chemical knowledge. Have you ever scrubbed away at some grease or oil that just wonÃ¢â¬â¢t come out? ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s because we are used to most of the Ã¢â¬Å"gunkÃ¢â¬ that we clean up being a polar substance. Water is also a polar substance, and since like dissolves like, most polar substances dissolve easily in water. However, when we introduce water to big greasy hydrocarbon chains (usually called alkanes, or fats and oils as we know them), the water just slides right over them and our plate stays greasy. This is because fats, oils, and waxes are nonpolar substances. If instead of using water we used less polar mineral spirits (not recommended on food prep items), those greasy alkanes would be dissolved in no time. Solubility concerns are clearly at the forefront of chemistry in the home. For two substances to be soluble in one another, they must be composed of similar materials, as we saw in the case with water and other polar substances. The interaction between water and nonpolar substances in science is termed the Ã¢â¬Å"hydrophobic effect,Ã¢â¬ meaning literally Ã¢â¬Å"water fearing. Ã¢â¬ On a cellular level, there are many consequences of this effect, but the same is true in the macroscopic world. For instance, the Ã¢â¬Å"greasyÃ¢â¬ feeling your skin gets when it hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been cleaned in some time is due to sebum, a hydrophobic substance your body secretes as a protecting layer. Interestingly, many people wash this layer off in the shower only to replace it with Ã¢â¬Å"skin moisteningÃ¢â¬ lotions containing lanolin, which is nothing more than sheep sebum. Another solubility problem occurs when Coke is spilled on the floor, creating a sticky mess that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to clean up with any normal household cleaning agents. This is because one of the main ingredients in any soda is phosphoric acid, which is a sticky mess in and of itself, not to mention the sugars and other sticky components found in most sodas. Luckily, phosphoric acid dissolves easily in water, making water (and lots of it) typically the best way to clean up this sort of spill. Acid/base chemistry also finds its way into our everyday lives. For instance, have you ever touched your car battery only to find that seconds later, you are feeling a tingling or burning sensation? This is because the battery acid is performing a dehydration reaction on your skin. That is, water is being pulled from your tissue in a chemical reaction. Luckily, armed with your knowledge of acid/base chemistry, you quickly sprinkle some baking soda on the offending acid, neutralizing its harmful effects. Or perhaps youÃ¢â¬â¢ve eaten some particularly spicy food or just have a little acid reflux. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s milk to the rescue in these cases. The slightly basic milk will neutralize the slightly acidic foods in no time. So before you shove those chemistry books into the attic to gather dust, before you decide that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s just no application to a science so complex, think again. Chemistry permeates all of our daily lives whether we think about it every day or not. There is much more to chemistry than the biological reactions occurring inside of us. Chemistry is all around us.
Monday, January 6, 2020
You can control guilt or guilt will drive you into madness. In the novel, Macbeth, guilt has taken over two of the main characters, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, but each one responds to it in a different way. Their similarities and differences are quite obvious and both are driven to their actions by this feeling. It will eventually cause both of them a breakdown, affecting their behaviors and resulting them into going through a psychological incapacity. Lady Macbeth is a vicious and overly ambitious woman, her desire of having something over rules all the moral behaviors that one should follow. On the beginning of the novel, Macbeth receives the news that if Duncan, the current king, passed away he would be the next one to the throne. So,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Here shows how Lady Macbeth was not hit by guilt like Macbeth was. Macduff is the one to announce the murder of the king, and when Lady Macbeth comes out as the trumpets screamed because of such an acquaintance he tells her, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, gentle lady, Ã¢â¬Ëtis not for you to hear what I can speak. The repetition in a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s ear would murder as it fell.Ã¢â¬ Lady Macbeth acts as if she could not believe and fakes a faint with the most common and normal behavior as if nothing had happen, as if she was not the brain of such a cruel crime. Her cold blood and fakeness is incomparable on the beginning of the novel. Lady Macbeth does not understand why Macbeth is so guilty and is not enjoying his throne and power that were recently earned. As a Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ wife she tries to calm him down by saying that what he had done was nothing that it was all okay. Later on the novel another crime occurs in order to keep MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s throne safe. Banquo and Fleance are two of the next victims in MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s hit list. He had murderers to execute his job. The three murderers come back with the news that only Banquo was dead and that Fleance had escaped. Macbeth receives the news during a dinner that was held on the castle, where all members of the royalty were present except Macduff, Banquo, and Fleance. But Banquo was only absent for those who couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t see, Macbeth was having illusions with BanquoShow MoreRelatedTheme Of Blood In Macbeth1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbigger picture in Macbeth. Image patterns. Gender Inversion, fertility, sleep, sensory denial, all of these patterns are depicted in the ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s unsurpassed Macbeth. However, there is one pattern that marks the mind more than the others. Blood. A pattern seen in multiple instances in the play, but has a deep-seated meaning with Macbeth and his troubles. Sha kespeare uses blood as the main image in Macbeth to reveal the forever impending and mucilaginous power of self torturing guilt. Blood takesRead MoreThe Blood Motif Of Macbeth By William Shakespeare786 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMacbeth Essay William Shakespeare dramatic play has many suitable examples of imagery, mainly the imagery of blood. The imagery of blood is very important in this play because it symbolizes guilt. Macbeth got too greedy and wanted more power, which led him to murder innocent people in order for him to keep his throne. In The Tragedy of Macbeth, William Shakespeare utilizes the blood motif to demonstrate the continuous feelings of guilt felt by Macbeth and Lady Macbeth and to distinguish the changesRead MoreTheme Of Guilt In Macbeth901 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMacbeth is a beautiful literary work, with many ups and downs of each and every character. The two principal themes throughout Macbeth are the struggle for power and the resulting waves of guilt that overcome the characters, most prominently Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. The reader experiences the guilt that starts to overcome the characters and their plunge into madness. In Macbeth, Shakespeare brilliantly displays the inner workings of a guilty pe rsonÃ¢â¬â¢s mind; and uses both themes to heighten the chaosRead MoreGender Roles- Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Essay1296 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the old Shakespeare play Macbeth, women wear the pants, while the men wear the dresses, this is the theme throughout the play. It focuses on the marriage of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth takes the lead role, while she convinces her husband to kill Duncan. Shakespeare play concerning gender roles, shows the untraditional marriage in Scotland; what one sees is not what one gets. It also show how one starts is not how they end. The story of Macbeth shows power and betrayal. It shows power because it showsRead MoreEssay on The Pent-up Guilt in Macbeth1720 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Pent-up Guilt in Macbeth Ã Ã Ã Ã There is hardly any emotion in William Shakespeares tragedy Macbeth that outweighs that of guilt. Both Lady Macbeth and Macbeth are seriously compromised by the impact of this emotion. Ã Clark and Wright in their Introduction to The Complete Works of William Shakespeare explain how guilt impacts Lady Macbeth: Ã Having sustained her weaker husband, her own strength gives way; and in sleep, when her will cannot control her thoughts, she is piteouslyRead MoreMacbeth : Who Made Choices? Essay714 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesToby Zeng 3/2/15 English 2 Macbeth Essay Who Made Choices? In the eyes of the world, Lady Macbeth was the devil incarnate with a vicious heart. People think Macbeth killed all of those innocent people because Lady Macbeth compelled him to do that. However, I state that Macbeth made his own choices. Lady Macbeth just made it faster to happen. Lady Macbeth had power first, then Mcbeth took it. After that, they lost their power in the end of play. We can seeRead MoreBlood in Macbeth by William Shakespeare621 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesevil actions such as crime or death. Macbeth uses blood as an important symbol used to illustrate the characters feelings and beliefs. One of the primary emotions in the play is guilt. Guilt is a very important emotion throughout the play because it interferes with MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s morals and ambitions. The audience is able to relate to Macbeth throughout the play because of his guilt, despite the terrible acts that he has committed. Throughout ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play Macbeth, the reoccurring imagery of blood isRea d MoreThe Classification Of Water Imagery Present Throughout Shakespeare s Macbeth Essay1134 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesuse of imagery in many of his plays, but their effect on the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of his plays is most obvious in the tragedies, particularly in Macbeth. Images in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s works are used, according to Shakespeare critic G. Wilson Knight, to craft a playÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"atmosphereÃ¢â¬ or the permeating tone or mood of a play (3). However, this attitude between images and atmosphere creates an environment where different definitions of images contribute to different interpretations of the subjective atmosphereRead More The Guilt of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Essay814 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Guilt of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Guilt is a very strong and uncomfortable feeling that often results from oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own actions. This strong emotion is one of the theme ideas in William Shakespeare, Ã¢â¬Å"MacbethÃ¢â¬ . Both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth feel guilt, but they react in different ways. Guilt hardens Macbeth, but cause Lady Macbeth to commit suicide. As Macbeth shrives to success guilt overcomeÃ¢â¬â¢s Macbeth where he can no longer think straight. Initially Macbeth planned was to kill Duncan but itRead MoreSimilarities Between Macbeth Lady Macbeth Ã¢â¬â Essay1061 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLove was very important to the Shakespearean audience. There is not a play written by Shakespeare that does not contain some form of a love relationship. These plays usually end happily, however in the case of Ã¢â¬Å"MacbethÃ¢â¬ , the relationship that carries this important function, that is love, is conveyed in a way most peculiar. Instead of the average Ã¢â¬Å"happily ever afterÃ¢â¬ ending an audience would e xpect, Shakespeare offers the audience, a villainous duo. One would expect that their relationship is an